Genetic Modulation Therapy Through Stem Cell Transplantation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection.
Cureus. 2017 Mar 13;9(3):e1093
Authors: Mehta V, Chandramohan D, Agarwal S
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). While these cell types are present in all individuals, there are rare cases that stayed uninfected even after getting exposed to an overwhelming load of HIV. Research revealed a homozygous 32-base pair deletion (Δ32/Δ32) in CCR5. After careful consideration, a hypothesis was proposed a few years back that a cure for HIV disease is possible, through hematopoietic stem cells transplantation from a donor homozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 deletion. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) based quality treatment may serve as a promising tool as these perpetual, self-renewing progenitor cells could be modified to oppose HIV infection. If done properly, the changed HSCs would offer the permanent creation of genetically modified cells that are resistant to HIV infection and/or have improved hostility to viral action which will eventually clear the contaminated cells. The purpose of this review is to concentrate on two facets of HSC genetic treatment for potentially life-threatening HIV infection: building HIV-resistant cells and designing cells that can target HIV disease. These two strategic approaches can be the frontline of a quality treatment plan against HIV infection and, as an individual treatment or a combination thereof, has been proposed to possibly destroy HIV altogether.
PMID: 28413739 [PubMed – in process]