Journal of Medical Research and Innovation <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Medical Research and Innovation is an award-winning and open peer-reviewed journal which covers all aspects of Medicine including cellular biology, zoology and futuristic medicine (Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in medicine). The journal will feature original research, reviews, editorials, case studies, brief communications, opinions/views, poster presentations and audios &amp; videos. This will be of interest to medical practitioners, clinical educators, nurse practitioners and other healthcare professionals involved in the care of patients.<br><br>The journal publishes at least two issues (Bi-Annually. First issue in January and Second in July) each year. Articles are published online when ready for publication (Continuously) as Article in Press. Additional issues may be published for special events (e.g. conferences) and when special themes are addressed. Please note that JMRI only accepts invited articles. If you want to submit an article, please email us on prior to submitting, in order to discuss the possibility of a publication in JMRI.</p> JMRI Publications en-US Journal of Medical Research and Innovation 2456-8139 Acute intermittent porphyria with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in pregnancy: a case report <p><strong>Background:</strong> The porphyrias are a clique of metabolic disorders caused by a faulty heme-synthesis process. The acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common type of porphyria. It results from a decrease in the porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme levels (PBG-D) which plays a vital role in the hepatic phase of heme synthesis.</p> <p><strong>Case Report:</strong> A 26-years-old lady without any co-morbidity or prior history of any disease came with acute abdominal pain. The causes of acute abdominal pain such as the ectopic pregnancy and other causes were excluded after investigations. She was eventually diagnosed with AIP and managed accordingly. The findings of MRI Brain were suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The patient was treated with hematin, glucose and symptomatic treatment were also given. However, the patient had persistent autonomic dysfunction and hyponatremia, followed by cardiac arrest and death.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The diagnosis of AIP is often missed in cases of an acute abdominal pain in pregnant women. Early diagnosis of AIP during pregnancy followed by proper management is associated with favourable maternal and foetal outcome. Delay in the management leads to the worse outcomes like maternal morbidity, mortality or foetal loss.</p> Hemalata Arora Gaurav Baheti Ankur Jain Maulik Bhalsod Varshil Mehta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-19 2018-09-19 2 2 e000142 e000142 10.15419/jmri.142 Ayushman Bharat Initiative: India’s Answer to Universal Health-Care <p>India, the 6<sup>th</sup> largest economy and largest democracy of the world has been improving its health care facilities slowly since last few decades. Doubling the life expectancy from 31 years in 1947 [1] when India got its independence from the British rule to 68.3 years in 2017 [2], the Indian government has been doing a good job; however it is still quite less as compared to the western world.</p> <p>Furthermore, the per person burden of the disease, measured as disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate, has substantially dropped by 36% from 1990 to 2016. Following western world’s trend in terms of disease burden, non-communicable diseases (Ischemic heart disease being the number one culprit, followed by chronic pulmonary obstructive disease) and injuries together have surpassed the infectious and childhood diseases [3]. The number of diabetics has increased to 65 million in 2016 from 26 million in 1990 [4] while the prevalence rate of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has rose to 55 million (2016) from 28 million (1990) [5]. The incidence of all cancers also rose by 28% between 1990 and 2016 (majority of the cases were associated with tobacco smoking) [6]. India also accounts for nearly 1/3<sup>rd</sup> of total global suicidal rates (37% amongst women and 24% amongst men) majority of them being in 15-39-year-old group [7]. However, tuberculosis, iron-deficiency anemia, lower respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, and neonatal disorders still persist to be major public health hurdles in many parts of the country [3].</p> <p>In terms of Health-Care Access and Quality (HAQ), India still stands at 145<sup>th</sup> position (amongst 195 countries) lagging way behind than most of the countries including its neighbour Bangladesh which stands at 133<sup>rd</sup> position [8]. The major key-role playing factor in HAQ rankings, is the Universal Health Care Programme and health-schemes which are initiated and ran by the government. India, though have few health related schemes in order to improve the access to the health care for majority of its public, is still yet not efficient enough as it can be observed by the rankings. However, recently the Modi-led Indian government has understood the sheer need and importance of bolstering the health of its citizens and to provide universal health care.</p> <p>“Ayushman Bharat Initiative” also known as Modicare or Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana launched on 1<sup>st</sup> February, 2018 by the Hon’ble Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi comprised of two schemes: a) developing 1.5 lakhs (0.15 million or 150 000) health and wellness centres across the country to provide universal health care coverage, and b) National Health Protection Scheme which shall cover over ten crore poor families (approximate 50 crores or 500 million of beneficiaries) providing up to five lakhs rupees (6 935 USD or 5 325 Pounds Sterling) per annum per family for secondary and tertiary hospitalisation, making it the world’s largest state funded health programme [9].</p> <p>This masterstroke initiative shall improve the access to quality health services and help fulfilling Modi's stated goal to build a new India by 2022 [9] supplementing its economic progress.</p> <p>Thank you, Hon’ble Prime Minister Mr. Modi, for providing Indians what they truly deserve: A possibility of good health!</p> <p>Regards,</p> <p>Dr. Varshil Mehta</p> <p>Editor in Chief, Journal of Medical Research and Innovation</p> Varshil Mehta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-17 2018-09-17 2 2 e000148 e000148 10.15419/jmri.148 3D Printing and its Future in Medical World <p>Since the time of its inception, 3D printing has not only fascinated the researchers but also health professionals. Though the process is exciting, it involves meticulous coordination and selection process to achieve a desirable product. This review article discusses about the history of evolution of 3 D printers, their current application and future trends. Emphasis has also been laid to recognize the best suitable product and ways to prevent its misuse.</p> Sunil Sharma Shakti A. Goel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-27 2018-08-27 2 2 e000141 e000141 10.15419/jmri.141 Editors and Reviewers Acknowledgement, 2(2), July-December, 2018 <p>The Journal of Medical Research and Innovation would like to thank each and every one who has helped us to review and edit the articles. As a small token of appreciation, we would like to mention the names of all the editors and reviewers in random order here who have edited or reviewed the articles for the July, 2018 issue. The list will be updated as when more reviewers review the articles.</p> <p><strong>Editors</strong></p> <p>1) Varshil Mehta<br><br>2) Shakti Goel<br><br>3) Krutarth Shah</p> <p>4) Sergey Kozhukhov</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Reviewers</strong></p> <p>1) Shakti Goel</p> <p>2) Varshil Mehta</p> <p>3)&nbsp;<span id="cell-388-name" class="gridCellContainer"><span class="label">Mykola Khaitovych</span></span></p> <p><span class="gridCellContainer"><span class="label">4) Rahul Kotian</span></span></p> <p>5) Hira Lal</p> <p>6) Prashant Pradhan</p> <p>7) Pravin Padalkar</p> <p>8) Saumya Agarwal</p> <p>9) Mathew Asare</p> <p>10) Edith Claros</p> <p>11) Surya Parajuli</p> <p>12) Rajesh Sharawat</p> <p>13) Nishu Tyagi</p> <p>14) Pradosh Sarangi</p> <p>15) Deepak Jain</p> <p>16) Hamsini C</p> <p>17) Vicky Varghese</p> <p>18) Nishtha Agarwal</p> <p>19) Ishpreet Biji</p> <p>20) Tushar Kunder</p> <p>21) Rushi Solanki</p> <p>22) Suvendu Maji</p> <p>23) Sergey Kozhukhov</p> <p>24) Shaunak Ajinkya</p> Editorial Team ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-26 2018-07-26 2 2 e000144 e000144 10.15419/jmri.144 Markers of Poor Prognosis in Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes Without Revascularization: A 3-Year Survival Analysis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) account for more than 50% of the total number&nbsp;of patients with ACS. The mortality rates after NSTEMI are not significantly different when compared with patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the assessment of clinical, laboratory and instrumental data during hospital stay provide any additional independent information in predicting the 3-year major cardiac events after NSTE-ACS.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;We observed 490 consecutive patients, who were admitted to the emergency cardiology department with NSTE-ACS. The patients' baseline characteristics, blood analysis, left ventricle (LV) and renal function data were assessed and analyzed. The median follow‑up time was 36 months. The endpoint was cardiovascular death.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>The results of our study show that the risk of cardiovascular death during the three years follow-up after multivariate adjustment increases with older age (&gt; 64 years), history of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction and history of angina pectoris, lower ejection fraction (&lt;50%), degree of myocardial hypertrophy (the thickness of the interventricular septum &gt;1.25 mm) of the LV and the degree of diastolic dysfunction (E-wave deceleration time (DT) &lt; 150 ms), silent myocardial ischemia during first 24-hours, high pulse pressure on Day 1 (&gt;49 mm Hg), glucose level &gt; 7.5 mmol/l on admission and moderate kidney dysfunction (CrCl &lt;60 ml/min).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> In patients with NSTE-ACS, we report the cardiovascular death risk factors within the 3-year follow-up period in the present study. We thus conclude that it is important to identify the patients with high risk of future cardiovascular complications.</p> Alexander Parkhomenko Natalia Dovgan Yaroslav Lutay Sergey Kozhukhov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-17 2018-07-17 2 2 e000139 e000139 10.15419/jmri.139